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Last updated: 5 December 2021
Status:Final
Date:Monday 7 October 2002
Time:09:10
Type:Silhouette image of generic LJ60 model; specific model in this crash may look slightly different
Learjet 60
Operating for:American Virginia
Leased from:Dwiggins LLC
Registration: N5027Q
MSN: 60-242
First flight: 2001
Engines: 2 Pratt & Whitney Canada PW305A
Crew:Fatalities: 1 / Occupants: 3
Passengers:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 2
Total:Fatalities: 1 / Occupants: 5
Aircraft damage: Damaged beyond repair
Location:Santa Cruz do Sul Airport, RS (CSU) (   Brazil)
Phase: Landing (LDG)
Nature:Executive
Departure airport:Marília-Dr Gastão Vidigal Airport, SP (MII/SBML), Brazil
Destination airport:Santa Cruz do Sul Airport, RS (CSU/SSSC), Brazil
Narrative:
The Learjet 60 suffered a runway excursion on landing at Santa Cruz do Sul Airport, Brazil.
The aircraft was owned by Dwiggins LLC and operated in Brazil by a crew of the American Virginia tobacco firm to evaluate the aircraft, as they were planning to acquire a Learjet 60.
The flight departed Marília, Brazil, on a business flight with a captain, copilot and a pilot-in-training who was occupying the observer seat. The co-pilot, who would initially act only as an observer, didn't have any amount of flight hours in the model that would qualify him for the type of flight and function he was performing.
At the time of the accident, the weather conditions at the destination were light rain, and the runway was wet.
The aircraft made a steep approach for landing and at a speed 10 kt higher than expected. The touch down on runway 26 was about 400 meters past the threshold. The landing was continued and, although every resource was used for braking, it ran off the end of the runway. It struck a ravine and a road located 50 meters from the end. The pilot suffered serious injuries, the co-pilot died, the other crewmember in training and passengers suffered minor injuries.

Probable Cause:

Contributing Factors
a. Human Factor
(1) Physiological
Did not contribute.
(2) Psychological - Contributed
Crewmembers' overmotivation resulted in decreased situational alertness leading them to not perform a go-around, proceeding to the landing, disregarding the existing weather conditions, runway length, approach profile, and co-pilot operational capability.
b. Material Factor
Did not contribute.
c. Operational Factor
(1) Poor Judgment - Contributed
The commander did not properly evaluate the consequences of a high speed approach, believing that, even though the first touchdown point was too long and too fast, he would be able to stop the aircraft within the runway limits.
(2) Poor Planning - Contributed
The crew did not plan adequately for a possible abnormality regarding the prevailing weather conditions, minimum runway limits required for landing, possible needs of going around, as well as did not consider the pilot's inexperience in face of possible abnormalities, i.e., disregarded the importance of the landing briefing.
(3) Flight Indiscipline - Contributed
The use of a pilot without the proper documentation to occupy the function on board the aircraft.
(4) Deficient Supervision - Contributed
In the extent that the company management allowed an unqualified pilot to occupy the co-pilot function, without being properly qualified to adequately assist the captain.
(5) Deficient Cockpit Coordination - Contributed
There was inadequate cockpit resource management, since the pilot occupying the right seat was unaware of the equipment in question, in other words, he had no technical knowledge of the aircraft.
(6) Deficient Application of Commands - Contributed
By the inadequate runway and speed parameters, allowed by the commander when in final for landing, contributing for the aircraft to perform an unstabilized final approach.
(7) Deficient Infrastructure - Undetermined
It cannot be said that the lack of an aerodrome emergency plan is directly related as a determining factor in the aggravation of the injuries suffered by the crew members.

Accident investigation:
cover
Investigating agency: CENIPA
Status: Investigation completed
Accident number: RF093/CENIPA/2005
Download report: Final report

Classification:
Landing after unstabilized approach
Flightcrew un(der)qualified
Late landing
Runway excursion

Sources:
» Correio do Povo
» Departamento de Aviação Civil (DAC)


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Map
This map shows the airport of departure and the intended destination of the flight. The line between the airports does not display the exact flight path.
Distance from Marília-Dr Gastão Vidigal Airport, SP to Santa Cruz do Sul Airport, RS as the crow flies is 866 km (541 miles).
Accident location: Exact; deduced from official accident report.

This information is not presented as the Flight Safety Foundation or the Aviation Safety Network’s opinion as to the cause of the accident. It is preliminary and is based on the facts as they are known at this time.
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